Caryl Rusbult

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Publications

Finkenauer, C., Wijngaards de Meij, L., Reis, H. T., & Rusbult, C. E. (in press). The importance of seeing what is not there: A quasi-signal detection analysis of positive and negative behavior in newlywed couples. Personal Relationships

Hannon, P., Rusbult, C. E., Finkel, E. J., & Kumashiro, M. (in press). In the wake of betrayal: Amends, forgiveness, and the resolution of betrayal. Personal Relationships.

Rusbult, C. E., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (in press). Interdependence theory. In K. Dowding (Ed.), Encyclopedia of power. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rusbult, C. E., & Agnew, C. R. (2010). Prosocial motivation and behavior in close relationships. In M. Mikulincer & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Prosocial motives, emotions, and behavior: The better angels of our nature (pp. 327-345). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Finkel, E. J., Campbell, W. K., Buffardi, L. E., Kumashiro, M., & Rusbult, C. E. (2009). The metamorphosis of Narcissus: Communal activation promotes relationship commitment among narcissists. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1271-1284. Download here

Molden, D. C., Lucas, G. M., Finkel, E. J., Kumashiro, M., & Rusbult, C. (2009). Perceived support for promotion-focused and prevention-focused goals: Associations with well-being in unmarried and married couples. Psychological Science, 20, 787-793.Download here

Rusbult, C.E., Finkel, E.J., & Kumashiro, M. (2009). The Michelangelo phenomenon. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 305-309.Download here

Rusbult, C. E., & Kubacka, K. E. (2009). Interdependence theory. In H. T. Reis & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human relationships (pp. 868-871). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rusbult, C. E., & Kubacka, K. E. (2009). Mutual cyclical growth. In H. T. Reis & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human relationships (pp. 1135-1136). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rusbult, C. E., Kumashiro, M., Kubacka, K. E., & Finkel, E. J. (2009). “The part of me that you bring out”: Ideal similarity and the Michelangelo phenomenon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 61-82. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., & Righetti, F. (2009). Investment model. In H. T. Reis & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human relationships (pp. 927-930). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Finkel, E. J., & Rusbult, C. E. (2008). Prorelationship motivation: An interdependence theory analysis of situations with conflicting interests. In J. Shah & W. Gardner (Eds.), Handbook of motivation science (pp. 547-560). New York: Guilford.

Kumashiro, M., Rusbult, C. E., & Finkel, E. J. (2008). Navigating personal and relational concerns: The quest for equilibrium. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 94-110. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2008). Why we need interdependence theory. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2/5, 2049-2070.

Kumashiro, M., Rusbult, C. E., Finkenauer, C., & Stocker, S. L. (2007). To think or to do: The impact of assessment and locomotion orientation on the Michelangelo phenomenon. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24, 591-611. Download here

Rusbult, C. E. (2007). Interdependence theory. In R. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 488-490). Newbury Park: Sage.

Rusbult, C. E., Kumashiro, M., Stocker, S. L., Kirchner, J. L., Finkel, E. J., & Coolsen, M. K. (2007). Self processes in interdependent relationships: Partner affirmation and the Michelangelo phenomenon. In P. Hauf & F. Försterling (Eds.), Making minds: The shaping of human minds through social context (pp. 147-161). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Athenstaedt, U., Van Lange, P. A. M., & Rusbult, C. E. (2006). Soziale interdependenz. In H. W. Bierhoff & D. Frey (Eds.), Handbuch der psychologie: Sozialpsychologie und kommunikationspsychologie (pp. 479-485). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe-Verlag.

Kumashiro, M., Rusbult, C. E., Wolf, S., & Estrada, M. J. (2006). The Michelangelo phenomenon: Partner affirmation and self movement toward one’s ideal. In K. Vohs & E. Finkel (Eds.), Intrapersonal processes and interpersonal relationships: How they relate. (pp. 317-341) New York: Guilford.

Rusbult, C. E., Coolsen, M. K., Kirchner, J. L., & Clarke, J. (2006). Commitment. In A. Vangelisti & D. Perlman (Eds.), Handbook of personal relationships (pp. 615-635). New York: Cambridge.

Gaines, S. O., Jr., Henderson, M. C., Kim, M., Gilstrap, S., Yi, J., Rusbult, C. E., Hardin, D. P., & Gaertner, L. A. (2005). Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships. Journal of Homosexuality, 50, 97-117. Download here

Neiss, M. B., Stevenson, J., Sedikides, C., Kumashiro, M., Finkel, E. J., & Rusbult, C. E. (2005). Executive self, self-esteem, and negative affectivity: Relations at the phenotypic and genotypic level. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 593-606. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Hannon, P. A., Stocker, S. L., & Finkel, E. J. (2005). Forgiveness and relational repair. In E. L. Worthington, Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of forgiveness. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Rusbult, C. E., Kumashiro, M., Stocker, S. L., Kirchner, J. L., Finkel, E. J., & Coolsen, M. K. (2005). Self processes in interdependent relationships: Partner affirmation and the Michelangelo phenomenon. Interaction Studies, 6, 375-391.Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Kumashiro, M., Stocker, S. L., & Wolf, S. T. (2005). The Michelangelo phenomenon in close relationships. In A. Tesser, J. Wood, & D. A. Stapel (Eds.), On building, defending, and regulating the self: A psychological perspective (pp. 1-29). New York: Psychology Press.

Reis, H. T., & Rusbult, C. E. (Eds.) (2004). Key readings on close relationships. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.

Rusbult, C. E., Kumashiro, M., Coolsen, M. K., & Kirchner, J. L. (2004). Interdependence, closeness, and relationships. In D. J. Mashek & A. Aron (Eds.), Handbook of closeness and intimacy (pp. 137-161). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Sedikides, C., Rudich, E. A., Gregg, A. P., Kumashiro, M., & Rusbult, C. (2004). Are normal narcissists psychologically healthy?: Self-esteem matters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 400-416. Download here

Kelley, H., Holmes, J., Kerr, N., Reis, H., Rusbult, C., & Van Lange, P. (20 03). An atlas of interpersonal situations. New York: Cambridge.

Rusbult, C. E., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2003). Interdependence, interaction, and relationships. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 351-375. Download here

Finkel, E. J., Rusbult, C. E., Kumashiro, M., & Hannon, P. A. (2002). Dealing with betrayal in close relationships: Does commitment promote forgiveness? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 956-974.Download here

Kilpatrick, S. D., Bissonnette, V. L., & Rusbult, C. E. (2002). Empathic accuracy and accommodative behavior among newly married couples. Personal Relationships, 9, 369-393. Download here

Kumashiro, M., Finkel, E. J., & Rusbult, C. E. (2002). Self-respect and pro-relationship behavior in marital relationships. Journal of Personality, 70, 1009-1049. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Kumashiro, M., Finkel, E. J., & Wildschut, T. (2002). The war of the Roses: An interdependence analysis of betrayal and forgiveness. In P. Noller & J. A. Feeney (Eds.), The intricacies of marital interaction (pp. 251-281). New York: Cambridge.

Davis, J. L., & Rusbult, C. E. (2001). Attitude alignment in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 65-84. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Arriaga, X. B., & Agnew, C. R. (2001). Interdependence in close relationships. In G. J. O. Fletcher & M. S. Clark (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Interpersonal processes (pp. 359-387). Oxford: Blackwell.

Rusbult, C. E., Olsen, N., Davis, J. L., & Hannon, P. (2001). Commitment and relationship maintenance mechanisms. In J. H. Harvey & A. Wenzel (Eds.), Close romantic relationships: Maintenance and enhancement (pp. 87-113). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Rusbult, C. E. (2000). Interdependence theory. In A. E. Kazdin, Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 330-331). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association and Oxford Univ. Press.

Rusbult, C. E., & Arriaga, X. B. (2000). Interdependence in personal relationships. In W. Ickes & S. Duck (Eds.), The social psychology of personal relationships (pp. 79-108). Chichester: Wiley.

Rusbult, C. E., Van Lange, P. A. M., Wildschut, T., Yovetich, N. A., & Verette, J. (2000). Perceived superiority in close relationships: Why it exists and persists. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 521-545. Download here

Drigotas, S. M., Rusbult, C. E., & Verette, J. (1999). Level of commitment, mutuality of commitment, and couple well-being. Personal Relationships, 6, 389-409. Download here

Drigotas, S. M., Rusbult, C. E., Wieselquist, J., & Whitton, S. (1999). Close partner as sculptor of the ideal self: Behavioral affirmation and the Michelangelo phenomenon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 293-323. Download here

Foster, C. A., & Rusbult, C. E. (1999). Injustice and powerseeking. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 834-849. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Wieselquist, J., Foster, C. A., & Witcher, B. S. (1999). Commitment and trust in close relationships: An interdependence analysis. In J. Adams & W. H. Jones (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal commitment and relationship stability (pp. 427-449). New York: Plenum.

Van Lange, P. A. M., Rusbult, C. E., Semin-Goossens, A., Görts, C. A., & Stalpers, M. (1999). Being better than others but otherwise perfectly normal: Perceptions of uniqueness and similarity in close relationships. Personal Relationships, 6, 269-289. Download here

Wieselquist, J., Rusbult, C. E., Foster, C. A., & Agnew, C. R. (1999). Commitment, pro-relationship behavior, and trust in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 942-966. Download here

Agnew, C. R., Van Lange, P. A. M., Rusbult, C. E., & Langston, C. A. (1998). Cognitive interdependence: Commitment and the mental representation of close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 939-954. Download here

Arriaga, X. B., & Rusbult, C. E. (1998). Standing in my partner’s shoes: Partner perspective-taking and reactions to accommodative dilemmas. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 927-948. Download here

Martz, J. M., Verette, J., Arriaga, X. B., Slovik, L. F., Cox, C. L., & Rusbult, C. E. (1998). Positive illusion in close relationships. Personal Relationships, 5, 159-181. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Bissonnette, V. L., Arriaga, X. B., & Cox, C. L. (1998). Accommodation processes during the early years of marriage. In T. N. Bradbury (Ed.), The developmental course of marital dysfunction (pp. 74-113). New York: Cambridge.

Rusbult, C. E., Martz, J. M., & Agnew, C. R. (1998). The investment model scale: Measuring commitment level, satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Personal Relationships, 5, 357-391.  >Download here

Bissonnette, V. L., Rusbult, C. E., & Kilpatrick, S. D. (1997). Empathic accuracy and marital conflict resolution. In W. Ickes (Ed.), Empathic accuracy (pp. 251-281). New York: Guilford.

Cox, C. L., Wexler, M. O., Rusbult, C. E., & Gaines, S. O., Jr. (1997). Prescriptive support and commitment processes in close relationships. Social Psychology Quarterly, 60, 79-90. Download here

N-US;" lang="EN-US">Gaines, S. O., Jr., Panter, A. T., Lyde, M. D., Steers, W. N., Rusbult, C. E., Cox, C. L., & Wexler, M. O. (1997). Evaluating the circumplexity of interpersonal traits and the manifestation of interpersonal traits in interpersonal trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 610-623. Download here

Gaines, S. O., Jr., Reis, H. T., Summers, S., Rusbult, C. E., Cox, C. L., Wexler, M. O., Marelich, W. D., & Kurland, G. J. (1997). Impact of attachment style on reactions to accommodative dilemmas in close relationships. Personal Relationships, 4, 93-113. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., & Arriaga, X. B. (1997). Interdependence theory. In S. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research, and interventions (2nd Ed., pp. 221-250). Chichester: Wiley.

Van Lange, P. A. M., Rusbult, C. E., Drigotas, S. M., Arriaga, X. B., Witcher, B. S., & Cox, C. L. (1997). Willingness to sacrifice in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1373-1395. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (1996). Interdependence processes. In E. T. Higgins & A. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 564-596). New York: Guilford.

Rusbult, C. E., Yovetich, N. A., & Verette, J. (1996). An interdependence analysis of accommodation processes. In G. J. O. Fletcher & J. Fitness (Eds.), Knowledge structures in close relationships: A social psychological approach (pp. 63-90). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Drigotas, S. M., Whitney, G. A., & Rusbult, C. E. (1995). On the peculiarities of loyalty: A diary study of responses to dissatisfaction in everyday life. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 596-609. Download here

Lin, Y. H. W., & Rusbult, C. E. (1995). Commitment to dating relationships and cross-sex friendships in America and China: The impact of centrality of relationship, normative support, and investment model variables. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12, 7-26. Download here

Rusbult, C. E. (1995). Commitment. In A. S. R. Manstead & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Blackwell dictionary of social psychology (p. 109). Oxford: Blackwell.

Rusbult, C. E., Insko, C. A., & Lin, Y. H. W. (1995). Seniority-based reward allocation in the United States and Taiwan. ">Social Psychology Quarterly, 58, 13-30. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., & Martz, J. M. (1995). Remaining in an abusive relationship: An investment model analysis of nonvoluntary commitment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 558-571. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (1995). Interdependence theory. In A. S. R. Manstead & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Blackwell dictionary of social psychology (pp. 329-334). Oxford: Blackwell.

Rusbult, C. E., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (1995). Social exchange theories. In A. S. R. Manstead & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Blackwell dictionary of social psychology (p. 551). Oxford: Blackwell.

Van Lange, P. A. M., & Rusbult, C. E. (1995). My relationship is better than – and not as bad as – yours is: The perception of superiority in close relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 32-44. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Drigotas, S. M., & Verette, J. (1994). The investment model: An interdependence analysis of commitment processes and relationship maintenance phenomena. In D. Canary & L. Stafford (Eds.), Communication and relational maintenance (pp. 115-139). New York: Academic Press.

Yovetich, N. A., & Rusbult, C. E. (1994). Accommodative behavior in close relationships: Exploring transformation of motivation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 138-164. Download here

Lipkus, I., & Rusbult, C. E. (1993). Reactions to individuals who are consistently positive or negative: The impact of differing interaction goals. Human Relations, 46, 481-499. Download here

Rusbult, C. E. (1993). Understanding responses to dissatisfaction in close relationships: The exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect model. In S. Worchel & J. A. Simpson (Eds.), Conflict between people and groups: Causes, processes, and resolutions (pp. 30-59). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Rusbult, C. E., & Buunk, B. P. (1993). Commitment processes in close relationships: An interdependence analysis. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 175-204. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Onizuka, R. K., & Lipkus, I. (1993). What do we really want?: Mental models of ideal romantic involvement explored through multidimensional scaling. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 29, 493-527. Download here

Drigotas, S. M., & Rusbult, C. E. (1992). Should I stay or should I go?: A dependence model of breakups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 62-87. Download here

Farrell, D., & Rusbult, C. E. (1992). Exploring the exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect typology: The influence of job satisfaction, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Journal of Employee Responsibilities and Rights, 5 (3), 201-218.

Lin, Y. H. W., Insko, C. A., & Rusbult, C. E. (1991). Rational selective exploitation among Americans and Chinese: General similarity, with one surprise. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 1169-1206.

Rusbult, C. E. (1991). Commentary on Johnson’s “Commitment to personal relationships”: What’s interesting, and what’s new? In W. H. Jones & D. W. Perlman (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships (Vol. 3, pp. 151-169). London: Kingsley.

Rusbult, C. E., & Verette, J. (1991). An interdependence analysis of accommodation processes in close relationships. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 19, 3-33.

Rusbult, C. E., Verette, J., Whitney, G. A., Slovik, L. F., & Lipkus, I. (1991). Accommodation processes in close relationships: Theory and preliminary empirical evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 53-78. Download here

This paper received the Reuben Hill Award from the National Council on Family Relations (1991) and the New Contribution Award from the International Society for the Study of Personal Relationships (1991-92)

Farrell, D., & Rusbult, C. E. (1990). Exploring the exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect typology: The effects of job satisfaction, investment size, and quality of alternatives. Proceedings of the 1990 Conference of the Council on Employee Responsibilities and Rights (pp. 26-37). Orlando, FL: Council on Employee Responsibilities and Rights.

Farrell, D., Rusbult, C., Lin, Y. H., & Bernthal, P. (1990). Impact of job satisfaction, investment size, and quality of alternatives on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect responses to job dissatisfaction: A cross-lagged panel study. In L. R. Jauch & J. L. Wall (Eds.), Best Paper Proceedings of the Academy of Management (pp. 211-215). San Francisco: Academy of Management.

Rusbult, C. E., Campbell, M. A., & Price, M. E. (1990). Rational selective exploitation and distress: Employee reactions to performance-based and mobility-based reward allocations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 487-500. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Insko, C. A., Lin, Y. H. W., & Smith, W. J. (1990). Social motives underlying rational selective exploitation: The impact of instrumental versus social-emotional allocator orientation on the distribution of rewards in groups. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 984-1025.

Johnson, D. J., & Rusbult, C. E. (1989). Resisting temptation: Devaluation of alternative partners as a means of maintaining commitment in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 967-980. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Farrell, D., Rogers, G., & Mainous, A. G., III (1988). Impact of exchange variables on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: An integrative model of responses to declining job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 31, 599-627. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Lowery, D., Hubbard, M., Maravankin, O. J., & Neises, M. (1988). Impact of employee mobility and employee performance on the allocation of rewards under conditions of constraint. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 605-615. Download here

Rusbult, C. E. (1987a). Commitment in close relationships: The investment model. In L. A. Peplau, D. O. Sears, S. E. Taylor, & J. L. Freedman (Eds.), Readings in social psychology: Classic and contemporary contributions (pp. 147-157). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Rusbult, C. E. (1987b). Responses to dissatisfaction in close relationships: The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model. In D. Perlman & S. Duck (Eds.), Intimate relationships: Development, dynamics, and deterioration (pp. 209-237). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Rusbult, C. E., Morrow, G. D., & Johnson, D. J. (1987). Self-esteem and problem solving behavior in close relationships. British Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 293-303.

Duffy, S., & Rusbult, C. E. (1986). Satisfaction and commitment in homosexual and heterosexual relationships. Journal of Homosexuality, 12, 1-23.

Lowery, D., & Rusbult, C. E. (1986). Bureaucratic responses to antibureaucratic administrations: Federal employee reaction to the Reagan election. Administration and Society, 18, 45-75. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Johnson, D. J., & Morrow, G. D. (1986a). Determinants and consequences of exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: Responses to dissatisfaction in adult romantic involvements. Human Relations, 39, 45-63. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Johnson, D. J., & Morrow, G. D. (1986b). Impact of couple patterns of problem solving on distress and nondistress in dating relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 744-753. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Johnson, D. J., & Morrow, G. D. (1986c). Predicting satisfaction and commitment in adult romantic involvements: An assessment of the generalizability of the investment model. Social Psychology Quarterly, 49, 81-89. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Zembrodt, I. M., & Iwaniszek, J. (1986). The impact of gender and sex-role orientation on responses to dissatisfaction in close relationships. Sex Roles, 15, 1-20. Download here

Farrell, D., & Rusbult, C. E. (1985). Understanding the retention function: A model of the causes of exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect behaviors. Personnel Administrator, 30, 129-140.

Rusbult, C. E., & Lowery, D. (1985). When bureaucrats get the blues: Responses to dissatisfaction among federal employees. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15, 80-103.

Rusbult, C. E. (1983). A longitudinal test of the investment model: The development (and deterioration) of satisfaction and commitment in heterosexual involvements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 101-117. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., & Farrell, D. (1983). A longitudinal test of the investment model: The impact on job satisfaction, job commitment, and turnover of variations in rewards, costs, alternatives, and investments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 429-438. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., & Zembrodt, I. M. (1983). Responses to dissatisfaction in romantic involvements: A multidimensional scaling analysis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 274-293. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., & Medlin, S. M. (1982). Information availability, goodness of outcome, and attributions of causality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 292-305. Download here

Rusbult, C. E., Musante, L., & Solomon, M. (1982). The effects of clarity of decision rule and favorability of verdict on satisfaction with resolution of conflicts. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 12, 304-317.

Rusbult, C. E., Zembrodt, I. M., & Gunn, L. K. (1982). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: Responses to dissatisfaction in romantic involvements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 1230-1242. Download here

Farrell, D., & Rusbult, C. E. (1981). Exchange variables as predictors of job satisfaction, job commitment, and turnover: The impact of rewards, costs, alternatives, and investments. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 27, 78-95.

Rusbult, C. E. (1980a). Commitment and satisfaction in romantic associations: A test of the investment model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16, 172-186. Download here

Rusbult, C. E. (1980b). Satisfaction and commitment in friendships. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 11, 96-105.

McCallum, R., Rusbult, C. E., Hong, G., Walden, T. A., & Schopler, J. (1979). Effects of resource availability and importance of behavior on the experience of crowding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1304-1313. Download here

Rusbult, C. E. (1979). Crowding and human behavior: A guide for urban planners. Environment and Planning, 11, 731-744.

Schopler, J., Rusbult, C. E., & McCallum, R. (1979). Conceptual dimensions of crowding: A multidimensional scaling analysis. In M. R. Gurkaynak & W. A. LeCompte (Eds.), Human consequences of crowding (pp. 205-217). New York: Plenum.

Schopler, J., Rusbult, C. E., & McCallum, R. (1978). Conceptual dimensions of crowding: A North Carolina study. Journal of Population, 1, 231-238. Download here